Sverige beskyddas av den svenska armén som har som uppdrag att stå emot en attack mot nationen från någon med syftet att attackera landet eller pressa det med militär kraft. Det totala försvaret utgörs av det militära och det civila, där det civila försvarets uppdrag är att stödja det militära vid en nödsituation.

Försvarets beståndsdelar

Det civila försvaret utgörs av privata företag, frivilligorganisationer, kommuner, landstingsråd och statliga myndigheter. Deras syfte är att skydda den civila befolkningen, säkra viktiga offentliga funktioner, och stödja militären vid en beväpnad attack mot landet. Det militära försvarets syfte är att försvara Sverige, både självständigt och tillsammans med andra, i och utanför landet. Detta görs genom att skydda suveräna rättigheter och nationella intressen, förhindra konflikter och krig, skydda Sveriges handlingsfrihet, och skydda samhället. Det militära försvaret består av militära enheter som är utformade för att kunna skydda nationen mot en attack, de är också utrustade för att kunna lösa konflikter under fred. Detta innebär att de aktivt skyddar territorium och deltar vid internationella kriser. De militära enheterna består av hemvärnet och försvarsmakten som båda delar på förmågor som träning, logistik, ledarskap och information för att alltid kunna vara redo att försvara vid ett anfall. Försvarsmakten är indelat i armén, flottan och flygvapnet där alla har olika funktioner för att stärka Sveriges försvar.

Mönstring i Sverige

Mönstring i Sverige WW1

Den första svenska värnplikten infördes 1901 som innebar att svenska män mellan 21 och 40 år var skyldiga att delta i en grundutbildning på 150 dagar för att lära sig det mest väsentliga inom militären. Vid första världskriget rustas Sveriges försvar upp och förutom de värnpliktiga kallas även fler män in till att tjänstgöra som tidigare genomfört utbildningen. Vid krigets slut dras de militära beredskaperna tillbaka och värnpliktstiden förkortas, trots att många föreslår att lägga ner verksamheten helt och hållet. Detta var inte helt i onödan då andra världskriget en tid senare bryter ut och värnpliktstiden förlängs till nästan ett helt år. Många som tjänstgjort tidigare blir också inkallade för att öka beredskapen. Efter krigets slut är upprustningen hög, inte minst det svenska flygvapnet som är helt färskt för Sveriges försvar. Vid 60-talet har Sverige ungefär 800’000 man i totalförsvaret som har möjlighet att mobilisera sig om så nödvändigt, ungefär 55’000 mönstrar per år. Mot 70-talet sjunker siffrorna för de flesta departement inom försvaret, och grundutbildningen förkortas till 227 dagar. På 80-talet är Uppsala de första i Sverige med att ta in kvinnor till grundutbildningen, och 1989 finns det inga restriktioner för kvinnor att tjänstgöra. Under de följande decennierna rustas försvaret ner och 2010 läggs värnplikten ner totalt och ersätts av totalförsvarsplikten. Denna återinförs senare 2017 då regeringen beslutar att ungdomar födda 1999 och senare är skyldiga att mönstra och genomföra grundutbildningen.

Sveriges försvar idag

Sverige har inte officiellt deltagit i något krig sedan 1814 i kriget mot Norge, där svensk utrikespolitik har hållit landet utanför krig med hjälp av Sveriges neutrala förhållningssätt. Idag har Sverige enheter placerade i diverse internationella operationer, antingen som observatörer eller deltagare i internationella träningar med NATO och dess medlemmar.

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